Scrum is a framework within which people can address complex adaptive problems, while productively and creatively delivering products of the highest possible value. Scrum is lightweight, simple to understand, difficult to master.
Scrum is not a process or a technique for building products; rather, it is a framework within which we can employ various processes and techniques. Scrum makes clear the relative efficacy of our product management and development practices so that we can improve.
Scrum is founded on empirical process control theory, or empiricism. Empiricism asserts that knowledge comes from experience and making decisions based on what is known. Scrum employs an iterative, incremental approach to optimize predictability and control risk.
Three pillars uphold every implementation of empirical process control: transparency, inspection, and adaptation.
Significant aspects of the process must be visible to those responsible for the outcome. Transparency requires those aspects be defined by a common standard so observers share a common understanding of what is being seen.
Scrum users must frequently inspect Scrum artifacts and progress toward a Sprint Goal to detect undesirable variances. Their inspection should not be so frequent that inspection gets in the way of the work. Inspections are most beneficial when diligently performed by skilled inspectors at the point of work.
If an inspector determines that one or more aspects of a process deviate outside acceptable limits, and that the resulting product will be unacceptable, the process being processed must be adjusted. An adjustment must be made as soon as possible to minimize further deviation.
Scrum prescribes four formal events for inspection and adaptation: Sprint Planning, Daily Scrum, Sprint Review, and Sprint Retrospective.
All work performed in Scrum needs a firm basis of values to serve as a foundation for the team’s process and principles. Through the use of teamwork and continuous improvement, Scrum both creates these values and relies on them. The values are Focus, Courage, Openness, commitment, and Respect:
- Focus. Because we focus on only a few things at a time, we work well together and produce excellent work. We deliver valuable items sooner.
- Courage. Because we are not alone, we feel supported and have more resources at our disposal. This gives us the courage to undertake greater challenges.
- Openness. As we work together, we practice expressing how we’re doing, and what’s in our way. We learn that it is good to express concerns, so that they can be addressed.
- Commitment. Because we have great control over our own destiny, we become more committed to success.
- Respect. As we work together, sharing successes and failures, we come to respect each other, and to help each other become worthy of respect.
Scrum emphasizes creative and adaptive teamwork in solving complex problems; Lean development focuses on the continual elimination of waste; Kanban concentrates on reducing lead times and the amount of work in process (lead time = the total time the client is waiting for an item to be delivered).
In Race we apply the Scrum framework together with the CCPM framework when we are developing the HOW and the WHEN.